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Causes of the Russian Revolution (1917) (Nihilism, Anarchism and Marxism)

Causes of the Russian Revolution (1917)
Nihilism, Anarchism and Marxism
Causes of the Russian Revolution (1917)
Nihilism was a theory of revolution popular among Russian extremists until the fall of the Czarist government (1917); Nihilism stressed the need to destroy existing economic and social institutions. Even though Nihilists were not without constructive programmes, direct action, such as assassination and arson, was their main characteristic. The assassination of Czar Alexander II was one of the results of such terrorist activities.
Anarchism, is the theory that equality

Generations of Network – 0G, 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G and 5G

0G-Mobile radio telephone (also known as “0G”). Mobile radio telephone systems preceded modern cellular mobile telephony technology. Since they were the predecessors of the first generation of cellular telephones, these systems are sometimes retroactively referred to as pre cellular (or sometimes zero generation) systems.
Generations of Network – 0G, 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G and 5G
1G refers to the first-generation of wireless telephone technology, mobile telecommunications. These are the analog telecommunications standards that were introduced in the 1980s and continued until being replaced by 2G digital telecommunications. The main difference between two succeeding mobile telephone systems, 1G and 2G is that the radio signals that 1G networks use are analog, while 2G networks are digital.
2G is short for second-generation wireless telephone technology.

International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)

International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) emblem 
The ICRC is part of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement along with the International Federation and 189 National Societies. It is the oldest and most honored organization within the Movement and one of the most widely recognized organizations in the world, having won three Nobel Peace Prizes in 1917, 1944, and 1963.
Since its creation in 1863, the ICRC’s sole objective has been to ensure protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and strife.

The National Food Security Bill 2013

Summary: The National Food Security Bill 2013 :The Food Security Bill 2013 was passed in the Parliament after a long debate and voting. After Mrs. Sonia Gandhi left due to illness, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Home Minister Susheel Kumar Shinde attended through the process till the bill was passed. 

It is an “Empowerment Revolution” said Mrs. Sonia Gandhi in her speech earlier in the Parliament.
Following is the Summary for The National Food Security Bill 2013.
Summary of the National Food Security Bill
1. Preliminaries:
The Bill seeks for “providing food and nutrition security in human life-cycle by ensuring adequate quality and quantity of food at affordable prices”.
It will extend to the entire Nation. The roll out date for the plan may differ from state to state.
2. Entitlements:
Public Distribution System (TPDS)For every person 5kg of food grains
Antyodaya households 35 Kgs of food grains per month


1.Red cross was founded by-J.H. Durant , Established in 1864 World red Cross day iscelebrated on May 8,The Birthday its founder J.H. Durant.
2.Sir Robert S.S Baden Powell is the founder of scouting
3.Who gave the call go back to Vedas-Dayanand
4.The construction of Qutab Minar was begun by Quatab-ud-din Aibak but it was complateed by lltutumish.
5.Who built the Sanchi Stupa- Agratala.
6.Who founded slave dynasty in 1206 A.D.- Quatab-ud-din Aibak.
7.The Capital of Tripura is Agratala.
8. The Capital of Mizoram is aizawl.
9. The Capital of Australia is –Canberra.
10.Spring tides occurs on- Full moon day as well on new moon day.
11.Tides in the oceans are caused by-Attraction of the moon.
12.Buddhism place of worship is-Pongda.
13.Jews place of worship is-Synagogue.

Two more attempts at cracking UPSC exam

Civil service aspirants will soon get two additional attempts at cracking the UPSC examination along with a relaxation in the upper age limit. "The Central govt has approved two additional attempts to all categories of candidates with effect from in Civil Services Examination 'r 2014, with consequential age relaxation of maximum age for all categories of candi- dates, if required,"

UPSC Recruitment 2014 : Indian Economic Service Exam / Indian Statistical Service Examination 2014

Indian Economic Service Exam / Indian Statistical Service Examination 2014 (IES / ISS)
 Indian Economic Service Exam / Indian Statistical Service Examination 2014

Advt No.04/2014-IES / ISS
Advt date 08.02.2014

Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) Recruitments 2014 Last date online 27.02.2014

Union Public Service Commission 
New Delhi

UPSC Advertisement No.2/2014 for various posts
upsc jobs 2014-2015

Advt No.2/2014
Advt date 08.02.2014
Last date online 27.02.2014

Posts :
  • Deputy Director (Cooperation/Credit) in Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture - 1 Post - PB3 GP 6600 [Notification]
  • Assistant Soil Conservation Officer (NRM / RFS) in Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture - 1 Post - PB3 GP 5400 [Notification]
  • Fodder Agronomist in Regional Station for Forage production and Demonstration RSFPD, Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairing and Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture - 1 Post - PB3 GP 5400 [Notification]

High Courts in India (Part VI, Chapter V, Article 214)

India's unitary judicial system is made up of the Supreme Court of India at the national level, for the entire country and the 24 High Courts at the State & Union territory level. These courts have jurisdiction over a state, a union territory or a group of states and union territories. Below the High Courts are a hierarchy of subordinate courts such as the civil courts, family courts, criminal courts and various other district courts. High Courts are instituted as constitutional courts under Part VI, Chapter V, Article 214 of the Indian Constitution.

The High Courts are the principal civil courts of original jurisdiction in the state along with District Courts which are subordinate to the High courts. However, High courts exercise their original civil and criminal jurisdiction only if the courts subordinate to the High court in the state are not competent (not authorized by law) to try such matters for lack of pecuniary, territorial jurisdiction. High courts may also enjoy original jurisdiction in certain matters if so designated specifically in a state or Federal law. e.g.: Company law cases are instituted only in a High court.
However, primarily the work of most High Courts consists of Appeals from lower courts and writ petitions in terms of Article 226 of the Constitution of India. Writ Jurisdiction is also original jurisdiction of High Court. The precise territorial jurisdiction of each High Court varies. The appeal order is the following: tehsil-kotwali-criminal/civil courts - district - high court - supreme court.

Judicial Appointments Commission (JAC) Bill Article 124

judicial appointment commission bill 2013 
The Union Cabinet on 26 December 2013 approved the constitutional status to a proposed Judicial Appointments Commission (JAC) for appointment and transfer of judges to the higher judiciary. 
The status would ensure that composition of the commission cannot be altered through an ordinary legislation. A Parliamentary standing committee which examined the Judicial Appointments Commission Bill, 2013 had also made a similar recommendation.

There were demands that the composition as well as the functions of the proposed JAC should be mentioned in the Constitution as a safeguard against future changes.   

As per the proposal, Article 124 A of the Constitution of India will define the composition of JAC and Article 124 B will define its functions. At present the composition of the panel is defined in the Judicial Appointments Commission Bill 2013. It was introduced with a separate constitutional amendment bill in Rajya Sabha in August 2013. 

Modern India - OLD NCERT - Chapter 10 (PART 1) and Download the Book

Chapter 10 (PART 1):
download books click here

  1. V. O. C. Pillai: He starts Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company.
  2. Satyendranath Sinha: 1st Indian to be made member of Governor General’s Executive Council.
  3. Manickotla Garden House: In Calcutta, this house was used by revolutionaries to make bombs.
  4. Bagha Jatin: He tried to organize revolt with the help of arms from Germany.
  5. Al-Hilal: by Abul Kalam Azad.
  6. Muslim League: established in 1906 by Agha Khan and Nawab Salimulla with the aim of promoting the interests of Muslims by promoting loyalty to the British government.
  7. 1913: Muslim League adopted self-government as its aim (as Congress had done earlier in 1906 Calcutta Session).
  8. Special Session of Congress in 1918 at Bombay under Syed Hasan Imam to protest against Montague Report.
  9. Rajendra Prasad and Anugraha Narayan Sinha joined Gandhiji during Champaran Struggle.
  10. On passage of Rowlatt Act, 6th April (1919) was observed as National Humiliation Day.
  11. 1920:  Special Session of INC at Calcutta.


- It is a situation characterized by a gradual, sustained, unchecked rise in price level observed over a period of time which generates expectations of a further rise.
-  Hyper inflation is a situation in which there is a fast rise in general price level even to the extent that it may rise each day leading to short fall in value of money.
People lose faith in domestic currency.
Govt shifts to some hard currency as an alternate currency, also called galloping Inflation.
-  Stagflation is a situation in which inflation coexists with recession, unemployment and business permission.
-  Recession is a situation characterized by declining demand, declining investment and business permission.
-  Demand pull inflation refers to general rise in price level due to rise in demand of goods and services.
This can be due to 

Doklam Plateau Issue

The region falls within Bhutanese Territory. India and Bhutan 2007 Friendship Treaty, Which provide regulations for border dispute Th...