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Asoka's Dhamma - NEED OF DHARMA

Asoka's Dhamma


1. There was considered intellectual ferment around 600 B.C. healthy rivalry was apparent among the number of sects such as the Charvaks, Jains and Ajivikas, whose doctrines ranged from bare materialism to determinism. This intellectual liveliness was reflected in the elected interests of the Mauryan rulers. It was claimed by the Jainas that Chandragupta was supporter and there is evidence that Bindusara favoured the Ajivikas.
Thus, the Empire of Asoka was inhabited by peoples of many cultures who were at many levels of development. The range of customs, beliefs, affinities, antagonisms, tensions and harmonies were galore. True, Magadha and the fringes of these areas. The north was in close contact with the Hellenized culture of Afganisthan and Iran. The far south was on the threshold of a creative efflorescence of Tamil culture. The ruler of such as Empire required the perceptions were addressed to the public at large. It is in these inscriptions that the king expounds his ideas on dhamma.


asoka emperor 
Diplomacy and geographical proximity primarily determined the foreign relations maintained by Asoka. Particularly, the century in which, Asoka lived was one of continued interactions between the Eastern Mediterranean and South Asia. That is why most of Asoka's contacts were with South Asia and the West. It appears that this interest was not one sided. A fair number of foreigners lived in Pataliputra to necessitate a special committee under the municipal management to look after the needs of welfare of the visitors. Apart from these major factors determining the foreign relations of Asoka, one more parameter was the desire of Asoka to spread his policy of dhamma to distant lands.
To begin with, Asoka in his foreign relations was a realist defeat and annexation of Kalinga. Also his realism is to be seen in Asoka not annexing the southern kingdoms (Cholas, Pandvas, Satyaputras and Keralaputras) while being satisfied with theirac knowledgement of his suzerainty. He probably felt that it was not worth the trouble to annex the small territories too.

Indus And Vedic Civilisation

Indus And Vedic Civilisation
There is muc to be contrasted between the cultures of the Harappans and the Aryans. There are indeed a few points of similarities, but they are not of any significance. Why the points of contrast are more is primarily because of geographic location, economic activity and the religious practices followed by both the cultures. Far more important is the fact that the Aryans, with a plasticity of mind, made life vibrant; whereas, the Indus life looks more like stylized puppet show.
The plasticity of the Aryan mind was shown in the language as well as the way in which they adapted agricultural and settled life. The seals of the Indus Valley show that the pictographs remained statis, whereas, the Aryan language in the Rig Veda at places rises to musical levels. The success with which the Aryan writings were composed reveals the ability of the Aryan mind to grasp the mulitiple dimensions of human life. And language which exhibits immense potentialities in its vocabulary reveals that the community is full of potentialities. On the other hand, out of nearly 400 characters known to the Harappans only a few were repeated time and again.

Geographical knowledge of the vedic period

The geographical evidence as to be found in the hymns of Vedas thros some light on the course of Indo-Aryan migration and the origin of Hinduism. Whether the Indo-Aryans came from Central Asia or not depends largely on the interpretation of the geographical allusions in the Rig and Yajur Vedas. The hymns in praise of rivers in the 10th blcok are interesting. The author while singing the greatness of the Sindhu enumerates at least 19 rivers including the Ganges. The fifth Stanza gives a list of 10 streams, small and great-Ganges, Yamuna, Saraswati, Satluj, Ravi, Chenab, Jhelum, Maruwardwan (in J&K), Sushoma (Rowalpindi District) and probably Kanshi in the same district. This system of rivers did not remain the Saraswati. The existing delta of the Indus has been formed since the time of Alexander the Great.
The Vedic hymns reveal the initial Aryan settlements in India : western tributaries of the Indus, the Gomti (modern Gomal) the Krumu (modern Kurram) and the Kubha (modern Kabul). The one river mentioned in the North of Kabul is Suvastu (modern swat).

The Earth and the Moon

The moon, being a satellite of the earth, revolves around it. At the same time moon also rotates on its axis and the axis of the moon is more or less parallel to the axis of the earth (the axis of the moon is inclined at the angle of about 58 degree 43 inches with respect to the plane of ecliptic).
The moon has a diameter of about 3480 km and has a mass about 1/81 that of the earth. Like that of the earth the moon’s orbit is also elliptical. At its nearest point to the earth the moon is said to be inperigee, and at its farthest, in apogee. Distance between the earth and the moon varies from about 356,000 km at perigee to about 407,000 km at apogee. As the moon completes one revolution around the earth every month, the perigee and apogee are monthly phenomenon unlike perihelion andaphelion that are annual phenomenon.

Countries with Most Land Borders

China share its borders with 14 countries:
Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Mongolia, Nepal, North Korea, Pakistan, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Vietnam


These show lines of equal values
ISANOMAL – Isopleth of anomaly
ISARITHM – Any line representing continuous value on maps.
ISOBARS – Lines of equal pressure
ISOHYET – Isopleth of rainfall
ISOBRONTS – Lines joining places experiencing a thunderstorm at the same time.
ISOCHRONES – Lines joining places located at equal travel time from a common center.
ISOPHENE – Isopleths of seasonal phenomena, Ex-flowering dates of plants.
ISOPOTENTIAL – surface to which artesian water can rise.
ISORYMES – Lines of equal frost.

Important Places In India Part VIII

The Mysore Palace (Karnataka): Built in 1897, it was the residence of the Ex-ruler of Mysore state is an imposing structure. It is a good example for the Hoysala art and architectures.
Tiruchi (Tamil Nadu): It is an Educational Centre in Tamil Nadu. Bharat Heavy Electricals limited is established here.
Tiruparankundram (Tamil Nadu): A cave temple near Madurai is one of the famous shrines of Lord Muruga.
Tirunelveli (Tamil Nadu): A famous early Chola Vaishnavaite shrine housing a huge stucco image of Varaha holding Bhudevi near Mahabalipuram in Tamil Nadu.
Tipu’s Fort (Karnataka): The fort is built of mud by kempegowda in 1537; it was rebuilt in stone in 1761 by Hyder Ali. Inside the fort walls is Tipu Sultan’s wooden palace with enough elaborate paint work surviving on the walls, niches, and railing columns to give an idea of its former glory.
Triveni (Uttar Pradesh): Here meet the rivers Ganges, the Yamuna and the mythical Saraswathi. Kumba Mela is celebrated here once in 12 years when the Sun is in Aquarius facing Jupiter in the zodiac sign Leo.
Trithamukh (Tripura): It is a popular pilgrim centre for the Tribal people of Tripura. Thousands of people assemble here in January-February during the festival called Uttarayana Sankranti and have a holy bath in the river Gomati.

Important Places In India Part VII

Salar Jung Museum
Salar Jung Museum (Andhra Pradesh): It is the personnel collection of Mir Yusuf Ali Khan, better known as Salar Jung who had devoted his wealth and leisure to gather out treasures from every walk of life.

Sambhar (Rajasthan): It is a salt lake in Rajasthan. Only lake of its kind in India.
Sanganer (Rajasthan): It is the centre of hand block printing and handmade paper industry.
Sabarmati (Guajarat): It is a place in Gujarat where Gandhiji established a Harijan Ashram. It is also the name of a river in Gujarat.
Sathanur Dam (Tamil Nadu): 22 miles from Tiruvannamalai a vast forest has been turned into a huge reservoir and a dam is a tourist spot.
Satara (Maharashtra): It is a glorious historical city, was capital of Shivaji’s empire in 1699.
Sanchi (Madhya Pradesh): Famous Buddhist stupa;, the diameter of which is 108 ft. was built in ancient times. It is the largest stupa in India.
Sarnath (Madhya Pradesh): It is a Buddhist pilgrim centre. In the Deer Park, Buddha-delivered his first sermon. Famous Ashoka Pillar is located here.

Important Places In India Part VI

Nagpur (Maharashtra): Former capital of Madhya Pradesh now in Maharashtra. Famous for textiles and oranges.
Nagarjuna Konda-Sagar

Nagercoil (Tamil Nadu): There is a temple of snakes or Nagaraja-snake god. The temple is filled with images of snakes and the Dvarapalakas are the snakes guarding the temple.
Nagarjuna Konda-Sagar (Andhra Pradesh): The reservoir is named after Buddhist Phillosopher Acharya Nagarjuna who propounded the Madhyamik school of Mahayana Buddhism.
Naharkhatia (Assam): Place near Digboi in Assam where oil has been struck.
Nainital (Uttarakhand): This lake dotted area of the Kumaon Hills, was the summer capital of Uttar Pradesh. The legend believed is that Goddess Shakti lost her eyes when Lord Shiva was curling her and the spot, where the eyes fell became a lake called ‘naina’ (eyes) Tal (lake) was thus given its name.
Nalanda (Bihar): Here was the famous University and Educational centre of ancient’s times. The Chinese traveler Hieun Tsang visited India in 7th century had mentioned about this University.
Narsobachiwadi (Maharashtra): It is a prominent pilgrimage of Lord Shree Dattatreya, situated near the confluence Krishna and the Panchaganga Rivers.

Important Places In India Part V

Kailasha Temple (Maharashtra): A rock-cut temple in Ellora caves.
Kalpakkam: Near Chennai in Tamil Nadu is known for Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS).
Kanchi or Conjeevaram (Tamil Nadu): This was the famous capital of Pallavas and is situated near Channai. Famous ancient temples here are well-known for its architecture.
Kandala (Maharashtra): It is a popular mountain resort in Maharashtra. Nestling in the Western Ghats it is an ideal resort for a peaceful holiday.
Kandla (Guajarat): The Kandla port is the main gateway for the trade of north-west India.
Kanheri (Mumbai): Situated near Mumbai, the famous spot of the ancient Buddhist caves of 1st Century A.D.

Government of Tamil Nadu - All India Civil Services Coaching Centre 2014 Entrance Exam Notifications : Last date 15.10.2013

Government of Tamil Nadu
All India Civil Services Coaching Centre, Chennai 28
Anna Institute of Management

Application invited for CAST 2014 Free* Coaching Class

Advt No.DIPR/1125/Display/2013
Advt date 15.09.2013
Last date 15.10.2013
Entrance Exam date 10.11.2013 time 10.30 am
Applications are invited from candidates of Tamil Nadu, desirous to undergo coaching for UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2014.Free coaching and boarding is available for residential stream (except GEN Category).

Residential (Full time) Class - 200 seats (Free)
Non-residential (Part time) class - 100 seats (Fee Rs.3000)
Qly : any UG - age min.21 yrs ; max GEN 30; BC/MBC 33 ; SC/ST 35
Entrance Exam Centres : Chennai, Chidambaram, Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Madurai, Salem, Sivagangai, Thanjavur, Trichy, Thirunelveli, and Vellore.

Important Places In India Part IV


Haldighat (Uttar Pradesh): A famous mountain passes where rana Pratap fought Mughal forces led by Man Singh and Asaf Khan.

Hampi (Karnataka): In Karnataka State is the location of ruins of Vijaynagar. The capital of famous Vijaynagar Empire.
Hardwar (UttaraKhand): It is at the base of the Siwalik Hills, where the Ganges River coming down from the Himalayas passes and enters the plains. The Daksha Mahadev Temple, 4 km downstreams in Hardwar is the most important temple.
Hirakud (Orissa): Twenty six kilometers from one end to the other on the river Mahanadi is Hirakud the longest mainstream dam in the world.

Important Places In India Part III

Dalal Street: Stock exchange Market in Mumbai.
Dalmianagar (Jharkhand): Cement manufacturing.
Dandi (Gujarat): It is famous for Salt Satyagraha (Dandi March) staged by Mahatma Gandhi in 1930.
Darjeeling (West Bengal): Famous for tea, orange and cinchona, fine hill station, famous for its scenic beauty.
Daulatabad (Maharashtra): The fort previously called Devagiri is believed to have constructed by the Yadava Kings in 1338. The fort is very impregnable.
Dayalbagh (Uttar Pradesh): Near Agra; known for Dayalbagh Industrial Institute, shoe manufacture. Religious and cultural seat of a section of the Hindus.
Dehu (Maharashtra): Dehu, a town on the banks of the river Indrayani is the birth place of the famous saint-poet Tukaram whose ‘Abhangas’ have a pride of place in Marathi literature.
Dehradun (Uttarakhand): It is the gateway to the Garhwal Himachal such as Badrinath and Joshimath. The Forest Research Institute is situated here.
Delhi: India’s capital. The Red Fort, the Jama Masjid, The Qutub Minar, the Rajghat (Mahatma Gandhi’s Samadhi), the Humayun’s tomb, Shanti Van (where Prime Minister Nehru was cremated), are located here. It established by Tomaras in 736 A.D.
Dhanbad (Jharkhand): Famous for coal mines and the Indian School of Mines, National Fuel Research Institute.
Dhariwal (Punjab): It is famous for woolen goods.
Dibrugarh (Assam): It is a town in Assam and the Terminus of rail and river communications along the Brahmaputra from Calcutta.

Important Places In India Part II

Bahubali (Maharashtra): A pilgrim center for jains, of both Svetambar and Digambar Jains; there is a giant idol of Shree Bahubali the son of Bhagwan Adinath, the first Tirthankar.
Bangalore (Karnataka): It is the capital city of Karnataka State and an important industrial centre. The places worth-seeing are Vidhan Saudha, Lal Bagh gardens, etc. The BHEL, HAL, IIM are situated here.
Barauni (North Bihar): Famous for a big oil refinery.
Bardoli (Gujarat): Bardoli in Gujarat State has occupied a permanent place in Indian History for no-tax payment campaign launched by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel against the British rule.
Baroda (Gujarat): Baroda, (Vadodara) the capital of former Baroda State is one of the main towns in Gujarat State. Laxmi Vilas Palace is a tourist attraction.
Belur (West Bengal): Near Calcutta, famous for a monastery founded by Swami Vivekananda; a beautiful temple dedicated to Shri Ramakrishna Paramhansa. It is also known for paper industry. There is another place of the same name in Karnataka, it is a famous pilgrim centre known for Channa Keshava Temple.
Belgaum (Karnataka): It is a border town in Karnataka State. It has remained a place of dispute between Maharashtra and Karnataka States.

Important Places In India Part I

Abu, Mount (Rajasthan): Hill station in Rajasthan; contains famous Dilwara Jain Temple and Training College for the Central Reserve Police.
Adam’s Bridge: Very nearly joined to India between two point’s viz. Mannar Peninsula and Dhanushkodi by a line of sand banks and rocks called Adam’s Bridge.
Adyar (Tamil Nadu): A Suburb of Chennai, headquarters of the Theosophical Society.
Afghan Church (Mumbai): It is built in 1847 known as St. John’s Church. It is dedicated to the British soldiers who died in the Sind and Afghan campaign of 1838 and 1843.
Aga Khan Palace: In Pune where Mahatma Gandhi was kept interned with his wife Kasturba Gandhi. Kasturbha died in this palace.
Agra (Uttar Pradesh): Famous for Taj Mahal, Fort and Pearl mosque. Sikandra, the tomb of Akbar, is situated here. It is also a centre of leather industry.
Ahmednagar (Maharashtra): It was founded by Ahmed Nizam Shahi. It is the district headquarters of Ahmednagar district. It is an industrial town well known for its handloom and small scale industries.
Ahmadabad (Gujarat): Once capital of Gujarat. A great cotton textile centre of India. Anti-reservation riots rocked the city in April 1985.
Ajmer (Rajasthan): It has Mayo College and the tomb of Khwaja Moinud-din Chishti, which is a pilgrim centre for Muslims; Pushkar Lake, a place of Hindu pilgrimage, is about two miles from here.
Aliabet: Is the site of India’s first off-shore oil well-nearly 45 km from Bhavnagar in Gujarat State. On March 19, 1970, the Prime Minister of India set a 500-tonne rig in motion to inaugurate “Operation Leap Frog” at Aliabet.
Aligarh (Uttar Pradesh): Seat of Muslim University, manufacture locks, scissors, knives and dairy products.
Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh):


From the agriculture perspective:

1. Diversification of the activities of arable farmers, with the building-up of an inheritance of multi-purpose trees, with continuous revenue from farm.

2. Protection of intercrops and animals by the trees, which have a windbreak effect, providing shelter from the sun, rain, wind, soil erosion and stimulating soil microfauna and microflora.

3. Recycling of some of the leached or drained nutrients by the deep roots of the trees; enrichment of the soil organic matter by tree litter and by the residue of the trees.

4. Possibility of combining the interest of the farmer (for an inheritance of wood) and the farm (for access to cultivated land). Possible increased remuneration for the arable farmer for the trees.

5. An alternative to full reforestation of arable land, permitting the continuation of arable activity on land whose arable potential otherwise is conserved. The tree component can be reversed, the plot stays "clean" (free from scrub) and is easy to destump when the trees are clear felled (the stumps are in lines and few in number).

6. In silvipastoral plots, fodder units can be available at different periods compared to full cropped plots, extending the grazing calender.

From the forestry perspective:


Tress and forest were always considered as an integral part of the Indian culture not only this but trees also play an important role in all terrestrials and provide a range of products and services to rural and urban people. As natural vegetation is cut for agriculture and other types of development, the benefits that trees provide are best sustained by integrating trees into agricultural system — a practice known as agro-forestry.
 Agro-forestry is an integrated approach of using the interactive benefits from combining trees and shrubs with crops and/or livestock. it combines agriculture and forest technologies to create more diverse, productive, profitable, healthy and sustainable land-use system. 
Agro-forestry is basically a land management system but in recent years its importance has been strongly felt for two reasons. Firstly, there is heavy pressure on agricultural land due to urbanization and secondly due to resource crunch agriculture is becoming un-profitable. Normally agro-forestry is a domain of agriculture where in crops the area is 80% or more and in trees it is 20% or less. Though trees occupy very less area in it but plays the dominant role. In our country, greater emphasis is being given to agro-forestry but still it has not reached to the farmer as it should be, whereas in China it has developed like an industry. 

Scope Of  Agro-forestry


The addition of constituents to water, air or land, which adversely alter the natural quality of our environment is known as Pollution. 
Pollution may also be defined as an undesirable variation in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of our water, air and land that may or will harmfully affect human life or that of desirable species, our industrial processes, living conditions and cultural assets, or that may or will waste or deteriorate our raw material resources. 

Global Aspect of Pollution 

Entire world can be considered as a single vast ecosystem of the universe consisting of two parts:

(I) Biotic Community (or Living Part) 

Countries of the World

A country is a region legally identified as a distinct entity in political geography. A country may be an independent sovereign state or one that is occupied by another state, as a non-sovereign or formerly sovereign political division, or a geographic region associated with sets of previously independent or differently associated peoples with distinct political characteristics. Regardless of the physical geography, in the modern internationally accepted legal definition as defined by the League of Nations in 1937 and reaffirmed by the United Nations in 1945, a resident of a country is subject to the independent exercise of legal jurisdiction. 
Nations of the world
Sometimes the word country is used to refer both to sovereign states and to other political entities, while other times it refers only to states. For example, the CIA World Fact book uses the word in its "Country name" field to refer to "a wide variety of dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, uninhabited islands, and other entities in addition to the traditional countries or independent states".Information about some countries:

Quit India Movement

In 1935, a new legislation was introduced which widened the franchise. On this basis, elections were held in 1937. The Congress contested the elections and formed governments in many provinces. These governments tried to implement some of the promises they had made like the release of political prisoners, greater attention to education and health, some relief to the peasantry, etc. they, however, remained in office for a short time. In 1939, when Second World War broke out, the British government declared without consulting any of the Indian representatives that India was also a party to the War. The congress ministries resigned in protest. From then on, it was only a matter of time and preparation when the next phase of organized struggle would be started.

Civil Disobedience Movement

The sudden withdrawal of the non-cooperation movement demoralized the Congress leaders and workers and led to a decline in political activities. But the appointment of the Simon Commission on 8th November 1927 again raised the political temperature. This Commission was constituted to explore the possibility for further constitutional progress in India, but there was not even a single Indian in it. This meant that the British government did not have any faith in the ability of the boycott the proceedings of the Commission. The Congress further decided to protest against it. Strikes and demonstration were held wherever the Commission went. This movement galvanized the country and stirred the youth and created the ground for new all-India movement. In the annual session of the Indian National Congress held in Lahore in 1929, the resolution declaring Poorna Swaraj (complete independence) as the goal was. Ans on 12th March 1930, Gandhi launched the new phase of the national movement.

Clouds Classifications

'Clouds' are a sufficiently distinctive result of condensation to be discussed in some detail. They consist of tiny particle, either of water or of ice, which floats in masses at various heights above sea-level, ranging from ground level (where they occur in the form of) to the highest wisps at 40,000 feet.

"Cloud is the mass a mass of tiny visible particles, usually of water (0.0008 to  0.0024 inches in diameter), sometimes of ice, which form by condensation on nuclei such as dust and smoke particles, salt, pollen and negative ions. The float in masses at various height above sea level, ranging from near the ground (fog or mist) to over 40,000 feets."

Clouds are classified:
(I) By Height
  • Low clouds upto 8,000 feet
  • Medium clouds at 8,000-20,000 feet
  • High clouds at 20,000-40,000 feet
(II) By Form

Emergence of Gandhi

The Swadeshi Movement declined by 1970. There was also a split in the Congress in 1907 and Tilak was imprisoned and deported in 1908. Aurobindo Ghosh and Bipin Chandra Pal retired from politics and Lala Lajpat Rai left India for some time. All these development led to a decline in the nationalist movement. It remained dormant for a few years but was revived during the First World War. Annie Besant and Tilak started Home Rule Leagues and the two wings of the Congress united in 1916. The War also witnessed the Ghadar Movement started in the United States by some Indian revolutionaries which sought to overthrow the British rule in India. However the most important development was the arrival of Mohadas Karamchand Gandhi, who as later popularly known as Mahatma Gandhi, from South Africa. In South Africa, Gandhi had fought for the rights of the Indians against the racist regime. From 1919 to 1947, when India attained independence, Gandhi remained the foremost leader of the national movement.

Doklam Plateau Issue

The region falls within Bhutanese Territory. India and Bhutan 2007 Friendship Treaty, Which provide regulations for border dispute Th...